plastic mould, injection mould

How to design the runner systems

 Runner systems convey the molten material from the sprue to the gate. The section of the runner should have maximal cross-sectional area and minimal perimeter. Runners should have a high volume-to-surface area ratio. Such a section will minimize heat loss, premature solidification of the molten resin in the runner system, and pressure drop.The ideal cross-sectional profile for a runner is circular. This is known as a full-round runner, as shown. While the full-round runner is the most efficient type, it also is more expensive to provide, because the runner must be cut into both halves of the mold.A less expensive yet adequately efficient section is the trapezoid. The trapezoidal runner should be designed with a taper of 2 to 5 per side, with the depth of the trapezoid equal to its base width, as shown. This configuration ensures a good volume-to-surface area ratio.Half-round runners are not recommended because of their low volume-to-surface area ratio. The Three Conventional Runner Profile illustration shows the problem. If the inscribed circles are imagined to be the flow channels of the polymer through the runners, the poor perimeter-to-area ratio of the half-round runner design is apparent in comparison to the trapezoidal design.

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